pa! < ti are eet) 5 O =




agy =

1875 3

THE ws To poy




mf SS SO: 8 YY






The REVOLUTION in 1685




A NEW EDITION, Correéted.


Printed for T. Cavett, in the Strand. MDCCLXXIII.

Ce Ne SE eas §




8 ey: ay a R-EGie AcRa Det

The king’s preparations for the crufade——Sets out

on the crufade Tranfattions in Sicily ———King’ arrival in Paleftine———State of Palefine—— Diforders in England——The king's heroic adtions in Palefine——His return from Palefines-— Captivity in Germany——War with France—— The king’s delivery——Return to England——

War with France——Death——and charaéer of the king——Mifcellaneous tranfattions of this reign. Page & CHAP. x JO: Begg

Acceffion of the king~——His marriage ——War with

France——Murder of Arthur, duke of Britanny ——The king expelled from all the French pro- vinces——The king’s quarrel. with the court of Rome—— Cardinal Langton appointed archbifbop

8 of


con TE DN TS.

of Canterbury——InterdiZ of the kingdom —se Excommunication of the king—~—The king’s fub- miffion to the pope——Difcontents of the barons —— Infurrettion of the barons——-Magna Charta ——Renewal of the civil wars——Prince Lewis called over-——Death———and charatier of the

king. Page 39 APPEN -DI.X I.


Origin of the feudal law——Its progre[s——Feudal government of England——The feudal parliament

The commons——Fudicial power ——Reve-

nue of the crown——Commerce——The church

—— Civil laws—— Manners. 10! Cah A..P.- ST.

a ae TY

Settlement of the government——General pacification ——Death of the proteétor——Some commotions ——Hubert de Burgh difplaced——T he bifbop of Winchefter minifier——King’s partiality to foreign- ers —— Grievances—— Eeclefiaftical grievances ——ELarl of Cornwal eletted king of the Romans ——Difcontent of the barons——Simon- de

~ Mountfort earl of Leicefter——Provifions of Ox- ford——Ufurpation of the barons Prince.Ed-



ward Civil wars of the barons——Referente to the king of France Renewal of the civil wars——Battle of Lewes——Houfe of commons —— Battle of Evefoam and death of Leicester —— Settlement of the government——Death——and charatier of the king———Mifcellaneous tranfac- tions of this reign. Page 143


Civil adminiftration of the king Conqueft of Wales ——Affairs of Scotland——Competitors for the crown of Scotland ‘Reference to Edward—— Homage of Scotland—— Award of Edward in fa- vour of Baliol——War with France——Digref- fion concerning the conftitution of parliament War with Scotland——Scotland fubdued——W ar with France Diffenfions with the clergy Arbitrary meafures——Peace with France Revolt of Scotland ———T hat kingdom again fubdued ——again revolts ——is again fubdued——Robert Bruce Third Revolt of Scotland——Death—— and charaéter of the king——-Mifcellaneous tranf-

actions of this reign. 232

CR ACP. ANG Bp ew AY RD ae

Weaknefs of the king His paffion for favourites —— Piers Gavafton Difcontent of the barons m—— Murder of Gavafton——W ar with Scotland

i ——EBattle

2 ang ony SE

Infiitution of the garter

CaNFEMMDS ——- Battle of Bannockburn—-—Hugh le Defpenfer

———Civil commotions——-Execution of the Karl of Lancafter-——Confpiracy againft the king-———

Infurreftion——T he king dethroned: Murdered ——His charatitr——MifceHaneous tranfaéfions in this reign. Page 327

Cem. F.-Y, E D-W.A-R. D Ti,

War with Scotland——Ewecution of the earl of Kent

——Lxecution of Mortimer, earl of March——~ State of Scatland——W ar with that kingdom——

King’s claim to the crown of France---—Prepara- tions for war with France——War——Naval

vittory———Dameftic .difturhances——~ Affairs >of Britanny—-~—Renewal of the war with Frauce -—-Invafion of France——-Battle of Creey— War with Scotland Captivity of thé. king: of Scots Calais taken. 371


State of Frante— Battle of Poittiers——Captivity of ‘the kin? of France——State of that kingdom——Invafion of France——Peace of Bretigni——State of France ——Expedition into Coaftile——Rupture with France——Ill fuccefs of the Englifa——Death of the prince of Wales——Death——and chara&er of the king———Mifcellaneous tranfolhions in this reign. £47


OES EME ere. &

cot HA RD I.

CT j

The king’s preparations for the crufade——Sets out

on the crufade

Gian thas loo heer ote ts hh ee ee Lranjaciton. 1M OtC1Ly——- King $

arrival in Paleftine—— State of Pale

orders in England Paleftine—— His tivity in Germany—— king’s delivery-—-]

0 : L nae 44 with France

1B, As Apll wdaaneae Senye eine oF king —— Mifcellaneous tLLiOuS 2} this reig te wT . CDi a > : SEY od Pe HE compunétion of Richard, for his t


behaviour towards his father, was durable, and

US flo AAU

atthe influenced him innuenced nim

and fervants a efion. /Thofe who had fecond-

and favoured his rebellio:

that truft and honour which they expe t You. Il. B to


iforace with the new kings ae "defpited by him.

1189¢ The faithful minifters of Henry, who had vigoroufly op-

pofed all the enterprizes of his fons, were received with open ans, and were continued in thofe offices which ed to their former matter *.

ates aaitass pee be the refult of reflection ; £ rd, fo much guided by paffion,

but in a prince, like Ric and fo little by policy, it was commonly afcribed to a

principle ftill more virtuous and more ho nourable. RicHARD, that he might make atonement to one pa-


rent for his br rders for re leafing the queen -dov vager from the confine-

ich of duty to the other, immediately fent

ment in which fhe had long ete detaine ed 5 and he en- land, till his

to We brother John

trufted her with

arrival in that king

was rather profufe a saat ‘ts udent. Befides beftowing on him the county of Mortaigne in Normandy, granting hima penfion of four thoufand marks Sse and mar- rying him to Avifa, the daughter of the earl of Glocefter,

by whom he inher ited all the poflefiions of that opulent

family ; he increafed this appanage, which the late kin

sad deftined him, by other extenfive grants and concef-

fions. He conferred on him the whole eftate of William Peverell, which had efcheated to the crown: He put him

on of eight caftles, with all the forefts and ho-

anexed to them: He delivered over to him no lefs

than fix earldoms, Cornwal, Devon, Somerfet, Notting- > 3 &

rfet, Lancafter and Derby. And endeavouring, by favours, to fix that vicious prince in his duty, he put

it too much in his power, whenever he pleafed, to depart

pelled more by the love of military glory acted, from the beginning of his

for the crue fade,

# Hoveden, p. 655. Bened, Abb, p. 547. M. Paris, Ps 107s reign, ~


reign, as if the fole purpofe of h the relief of the Holy Land, and

lem from the

mous on rre and were apt a. profe I I

every kit

extortion, The induftry and

had put them in poff

ther Barre oT satION enabled ther European navons, enabdied


on the wife


biting their appearance at his coronati

them, br



CHAP. ms

Ra eed 4189,


houfes, which they plundered, after having murdered the

owners ; where die Jews barricadoed their doors; and defe aed themfelves with vigour, the rabble fet fire to the houfes, and made way through the flames to exercife their’

lage and violence ; the ufual li icentioufnefs of London,

which the fovereign power with difficulty reftrained, broke out with fury, and continued thefe outrages ; the houfes though Chriftians, were n éd and plundered ; and wearinefs and fatiety at laft put an end to the diforder: Yet when the king impowered Glanville, the jufticiary, to enquire into the authors of thefe crimes, the guilt was found to involve fo many of

of the rich citizens, ext attack

the moft confiderable citizens, that it was deemed more

prudent to drop the profecution ; and very few fuffered But the diforder

nts of the other

the punifhment due to this enormity.

The inhabita land, hearing of this flaughter of the Jews, In Y ork, 0 hundred of that na=

tion, who had retired into the caftle

{topped not at London.

cities of En

imitated the example :


ible to defend the p

own. wives and children, threw the dea

walls upon the popt I

ere: | i » &ahe

n the flames.


ea 6 1

? c Z bourhood, who were all indebted to the Jews, ran to ‘the

cathedral, where their bonds were kept, and made a es: , Se folemn bonfire of the pap: altar. “he com-

g thefe events,

g over this impious England, wi edit, made it im= ce of a fteady of eed es Jer

ren the people

durable war, even on thei

they fin

=] m= i)

regular me

» Gale's Colled, vol. iis p, 263.


tions like thofe into Paleftine, which were more the re

of popular frenzy than of fober reafon or deliberate policy. « ~\ ~~]

Richard, therefore, knew, that he muft carry with him all the treafure requifite for his enterprize, and that both

the remotenefs of his own country and its poverty n it unable to furnifh him with thofe continued. fupplies,

which the Pete cies of fo peritate a war muft necef

hundred thoufand ars and the king, negligent of every

7 a ae leration, but his prefent objet, end

ment this fum by all expedients, how perni o the public, or “dangerous to royal es: He put to fale the revenues and manors of the crown ; offices of t and power, even thofe of and fhe which anciently were fo important ‘,

nal ; the in whofe ha was

Was told to riush

fame p nt the e ; Many of the champion 1 ot tiiell ve Ve pure! escu PD: 1 ] Lo it; and Richard, who ftood lefs money, difpenfed, on thefe conditions,

Soo ee ARUN Ee eg TEs. =

ried fo little

s of Roxborough and

2) Berwic,

had been made by ne the courfe of his victorious reign; ang iomage of William in the, ufual terms,

s which that prince held

in Eng- ks and ftations were op= Menaces were employed Pysde in order to ex-

a chi ian

race P a 7 itiage oe ee Melee Cit of his diipieature, to lend him Walica, ne knew, f ?

ould never be in his power to repay,

facrificed eyery intereft and

fecatiin tn the faccels of thix pious enterprize, car- earance of fanétity in his condu@,

that Fulk, curate of Neuilly, a zealous preacher of the

crufade, who from that merit had acquired the privilege f {peaking the boldeft truths, advifed him to rid himfelf


of his notorious Gx particularly his pride, avarice, and

vo] uptuoufnefs, da

ed the king’s three favourite 1ughters. u counfel well, replied Richard; and I here- é of the fecond to the Be-


Ricwarp, jealous of attempts which might be made on England during his abfence, laid prince John, as well


as his natural brother Geoffrey, archbifhop of York, un-

der engagements, confir by their oaths, that neither

of them fhould enter

om till his return; though he thought proper, before his departure, to withdraw this prohibition, The adminiftration was left in the hands of Hugh, bifhop of Durham, bifhop of Ely, whom he appointed jufticiaries and guar- dians of the realm, The latter was a Frenchman of mean birth, and of a violent c haracier ; who b

of Longchamp,

y art and uddrefs

f Hoveden, p, 662, Rymer, vol, i, p64, M, Well, p.257.


had infinuated himfelf into favour, whom Richard had C HA P.

engaged the pope ___ authority, that, by 4189.

created chancellor, and whom he h

alfo to inveft with the legantiz

centering every kind of power in his perfon, he mi

the better enfure the public tranquillity. All the mi- litary and turbulent {pirits flocked about the perfon of |

the king, and were impatient to diftinguifh themfel

ve inft the infidéls in Afia; whither his inclinations, hi

cs 1$ ments, led him, and whither he was impelled t “4 from the king of France, ready to embark in th enterprize Tue emperor Frederic, a prince of great fpirit and conduét, had already taken the road to Paleftine at the

head of 150,000 men, collected from Germany and all

the northern ftates. Having furmounted ey thrown in his way by the artifices of the Gree : and the power of the infidels, he had penetrated to the borders of

Syria ; sii bathing in the cold river Cydnus, during

the ereateft heat of the fummer-feafon,

{ 1ich put an end to his life and his

a mortal diftemper, w

mand ef his

> Nad r the co

rafh enterprize

fon Conrade, reacl but was fo diminifhed by fatigue, famine, maladies, aoe the fword, that it

fearcely amounted to eight thoufand men; and was ua- / o 3

abl ake any procrefs asain the able to make any progreis agajnic the

power, Va-

Jour, and conduct of Saladin.

attending the crufades, had taught

France and England the nece at of trying to the Holy Land; and they determined to armies thither by fea, to carry provifions alo

rer to ma

and by meaus of their naval Be"

communication with their own ftates, and with the weftern


- Cc het | Re * OY yr eR FT on arts of Europe. The place of rendezvous wa 29th junes


in the plains of Vezelay, on the borders of Bur; eundy BS

& Bened, Abb, p. 556. h Hoveden, p. 660,


a2?) >



CHAP. Phili td and Richard, on their arrival there, found their F , armies amount to 100,000 men‘; a mighty force, ani-


King fets out on the ¢crufade,

4th Sept.

—<t ee 3 mated with glory and religion, conducted by two warlike monarchs, provided with yy thing which their feveral dominions. could afford, and. not.to be overcome but by their own mifconduét, or by the unfurmountable obftacles of nature.

Tue French prince and the Englith here reiterated their promifes of cordial friendfhip, pledged their faith not to invade each other’s dominions during the crufade,

mutually exchanged the oaths of all their baron and pre-

Pi to the fanis effect, and fubje&ted themfelves to the

penalty erdiéts and excommunications, if they fhould ever violate this public and folemn engagement. ‘They then feparated ; Philip took the road to Genoa, Richard that to Marfeilles, with a view of meeting their fleets,

which were harbours. : ae to aa and nearly about the fame time, were s of weather, to take fhelter in Metin: & where ‘thay were detained during the whole winter. ‘This event laid the foundation of animofities, which proved fatal to their enterprize.

Ricuarb and Philip were, by the fituation and extent of their dominions, rivals in power ; by their age and in- clinations, competitors for glory; and thefe caufes of

emulation, which, had the princes been employed in the field againft the common enemy, might have ftimulated them to martial enterprizes, foon excited, during the prefent leifure and repofe, quarrels between monarchs of fuch a fiery charact |

in- trepid, and inflexible ; they were wefitcted with the leaft appearance of injury, and were incapable, by mutual condefcenfions, to efface thofe c

aufes of complaint, which unavoidably arofe between them, Richard, candid, fin-

i Vinifauf, p. 306, 5


Reda@ -H wR SDe tab 8

cere, undefigning, unpoli t, laid himfelf open, © H A P. > S 5? r by 2 vv

on every occafion, to the defigns of his a

provident, interefted, deceitful, failed not to take ail ad- *79%

vantages againft him: And thus, both the circumftances - difpofition in w they were fimilar, and thofe


; differed, rendered it impoffible


perfevere in that harmony, ch was fo nece

fuccefs of th

THE laft c who had marr apes

OF STE eS) PORE eee bh Serene tee) ee eter Peer ry we eS ithout iffue, had bequeathed his dominions to |


a ft L te y Lonitantia, tae Only le

es wWiho f

s8 cD . a . Vivine or inoger, the rit 10vel


} It with the ro title Py te oe * been honoured With the royai tite, ICEIS 114aG, 1

J ¢

expectation of that rich inheritance, been married to

1 maintained hi

claim eftorts of the Ge1 mans!,. The approacl ders naturally gave

nfions for his unfl

iin, whether he had moft reafon to dread the

overnment; and


» French or of the Engliff¥ monar

hat} tL fs faemidahle nrnree: and he wae notinificcet: | both theie formidable princes, ana ne Was Not uniucceisiul in | inj not

i a



C HA P. reftored queen Joan to her liberty ; and even found meang XxX, 4 P a

~~~ to make an alliance with Richard, who ftipulated by

¥ige: treaty-to marry his nephew, Arthur, the young duke of

e daughters of Tancred™, But

Britanny, to one of before alous both of Tancred and of the inhabitants of Meflina,

1 tak burl had pof-

ye oY +4 thio taihierho cen up his quarters in the fuburbs,

ms of friendfhip were fettled, Richard,

f of afmall fort, whichc

guard againft their ‘The citizens took umbrag

Mutual infults

pafied between them and the En Philip,

d his troops in the town, enteaoures

t purpofe. hile the two Seid meet-

ing in the open fields <d in difcourfe on this ms j

fubj edt, a body

xed to be drawing towards them; and Richard pufhed forwards, in order to

e iquire into the re: rT ih

The Englifh


fon of this extraordinary

movement ®,

from their power, and inflamed


with f , wanted but a pretence for attack-

ing the Meffinefe: ‘They foon chaced them off the field, drove them into the town, and entered with them at the gates. ‘The ki rity to reftrain them from pillaging and maflacring the defencelefs inhabitants ; but he gave orders, in token of his victory, that the ftand- ard of England fhould be ere&ted on the walls. Philip,

r employed his aut

who ceukieres that place

as his quarters, exclaimed he infult, and ordered fome of his troops to pull

own ie ftandard: But Richard informed him by a mef-

r, that, though he himfelf would willingly remove

t ground of offence, he would not permit it to be done

by others ; and if the French king attempted fuch an in-

fult upon him, he fhould not fucceed but by the utmoft m Hoveden, p. 676, 677. Bened, Abb, Pp: 6x5, = Bened, Abb.

Pp. 608,


Re: 2 AsR wD


effution of blood.

this fp

haughty fubmiffion, The difference

ft the remains 1190.

eaft of the two mo-

wn IWiL ie

TANCRED, who, for his

flame their mutual hatred, employed an a

might have been attended with confequences {till more fatal. He sa Richard a letter, figned by the French 719%

king, and delivere; ed to %

om eel * which that monarch defired Tat

nded, by the duke ancred te fall upon the quarters ae the Englith, and promifed to

affift him in putting them to the fword, as common ene-

mies. “The unwary Richard gave credit to the informa-

tion; but was too candid not to betray his difcontent to

Philip, who abfolutely denied the letter, and charged the

Sic the prince with forgery and fehood.

‘+! - - either was, or

}: a. 1 expedient itarted a new

more dangerous than

honour of Philiy

a trez ftrenuoufly on being al- 7 ray x , - ¥ a a | alee pilick iowed to m y fAlICe © rance, he Nad only fought a pretence never meant to taxe to 1 + f ey p is ] ++h

his bed a princefs fr a criminal amour with

own father. After

ef that alli k meafures for efpoufing

. } : ¥ T "11 rengaria, Sanchez, king of Navarre, with

whom he had become enamoured during his ab pode in

@ Hayveden, p. 674. Pp Ibid, p, 688, Bened, Abb. p, 642, 643.

Brompton, ps 1195s

Guienne ;


C HAP. Guienne 3:


t » princefs at \V


f2th April,


Philip renewed to him his applications for efpoufing his fifter Alice, Richard was suliged to give him ]

te refufal. It is pretended

by Hoveden and other


rians , that he was able to fuch convincing proofs of Alice’s Ss and

her having born a child to Henry, that her bro- & q

n his applications, and chofe to wrap up

the difhonour of his family in filence and oblivion. «It is

J certain, from the treaty itfelf, which Cen ae thats

whatever were his motives, he permitted Richard to give his has troverfies with that prince, he imt Holy Land.

his mot

nd to Berengaria; and having fettled all other con- 1


returned owagel ion

eet, on leaving the port of Meffina,

ous tempeit ; and the fquadron, on which


the two pri embarked, was driven on the

coaft of Cyprus, and fome of the veflels were wrecked near Limiffo in Ifaac, prince of Cyprus, r nt title of empe the fhips that were firanded, threw the

who affumed the

pillazed feamen and paf- into prifon, and even refufed to the princefles

tA their in thei

dangerous fituation, of entering the har- bour of Limiffo. But Richard, who arrived foon after,

me .

ook nple venc "7 5 ong s cp took ample geance on him for the injury. He difem-

barked his troops ; defeated the tyrant

t, who oppofed his landing ; entered Limiflo by ftorm ;

gained next day a eCAr res Y a Lt. = c <p 5 fecond victory ; obliged Ifaac to furrender at difcretion

4 Vinifauf, p. 316. r M, p. 112. Trivet, p. 102. Wy, Heming, p- 519. 8 otis Pp» . 688. t Rymer, Vol. ge p: 69, Chron, de Dunft, p, 44, « Bened, Abb, p. 644,


wn int cee fon ets. (OE ohcreys FE thro into prifon and loadec

: RSs ote ed with the di

nerolity of his conqueror ™.

re efpoufed Berenez


carried along with

a dang

: Sere 2 Mia anna See Sa foes band. © Such were the libertine character and conduc of

pious enterprize !

ived in time to partake in the The kin;




of the fiege of Acre or Ptolemais, which had been

2d for above two years by the united force of all the

tians in Paleftifie, anc hac been def

utmott efforts of Saladin and

1 deric, and adventurers

the k £, x R, Vv 4JUL I x thrown a ng carrifon into the place under the com1 nd cos, his. « in the of war, and 1 betie; attacks and fal ta protra¢ted the { iZey } Ps IS a een nt bie en; "T™ } c and walted the force of his enemies. i arrival of = ; . 4 s $e ane R sired new | the Chr : ; and thefe p es, act by concert, and tharing the Serb carts se marae : Sa and danger of every acti inal victory over th Chey acreed on tl! lan of : * 1 1 ~ i 4} operations: Vwhen the Frencl narcn the town, the neuih ruarded } C n the Englifh prince ted the French w BenedscAbb, ps Gs. Ano. Waverls p, 364, ViniGuh be 428) Ws Ps 05 3 Heming. p. 523. * Vinifauf, p. 269, 27


Cc HAP, fucceded him in providing for the fafety of the affailants, x g the -s

wes The emulation between

1191 produced extraordinary acts of valour: Richard in par-

and rival nations

ticular, animated with a more precipitate courage than Philip, and more agreeable to the romantic f{pirit of that ace, drew to himfclf the general attention, and acquired

a great and fj tation. But this harmony was

of fhort ised and occafions of difcord foon arofé

between thefe seen aie haughty princes.

which had firft pipe: placed T

on the throne of Jert italetn, ending in a fema ee count of Anjou, grandfather to Henry II. of Ehglan

married the heirefs of that kingdom, and tranfmitted 3

State of Pae THe fa amily of leftine,

title to the younger branches of his faniily. The Anje- vin race ending alfo in a female, Guy de Lufignan, by efpoufing Sibylla, the heirefs, had fucceeded to the title; and though he loft his kingdom by the invafion of Saladin,

he was ftill acknowledged by all the Chriftians for king of Jerufalem ¥. But as Sibylla died without iffue, dur- ing the fiege of Acre, Ifabella, her younger fifter, put

in her claim to that titular’ kingdom, and required Lu- fignan to refign his pretenfions to her hufband, Conrade, marquis of Montferrat. Lufignan, maintaining that the royal title was unalienable and adele able, had re- courfe to the protection of Richard, attended on him be- fore he left Cyprus, and engaged him to embrace his


caufe 7, ‘There needed no other reafon for throwing

Philip into the party of Conr and the oppofite views

~ 1 thefe great monarchs brou

bi] 7 . 5 and retarded all its operations. fe, and the Germans, declared de; the } nes, the Pifans, the

knights of the hofpital of St. John, adhered to Richard

Y Vinifauf, p. 281, % Trivet, p. 104. Vinifauf, p, 342. W. Heming. p. 524.

5 and


BSE ie AR Sp I,

and Lufienan. But notwithftanding thefe


the length of the fiege had reduced the Saracen

nity, they furrendered themfel

I ed, im return for their lives, other advan- ges to the Chritfti:

eh eC > Wnrnidan

ans, fuch as reftorins


prifoners, and the delivery of the wood of and this great enterprize, which had lo: attention of all Europe and Afia, was : lofs of 300,000 men, brought to a I

Burt Philip, inftead of purfuing tl

} . : conqueit, and of redeeming the holy cit

being difgufted with the afcendant aflumex

by Richard, and havi ing views of many ac

he mi reap by his prefence in Europe, dec refolution of returning to France ; and bad ftate of health as an excufe for his de on of the

common caufe. He left, however, to Richard fand of his Bi ITg ru I 3 a lit ah th Yoninitie ate rae hoftilities ag that prince’s dominions during fence. But he had no fooner reached Italy leftine IIT. fora difpenfation f vow ; and when denied that requeft,

s, under the command of

1e renewed his oath never to con

1 |

pplied to pope Ce

though after a covert manner, in a

prefent fituation of England rendered invitii

eratifed in an eminent degree, both his refe ? 5 2 his ambition.


begun his march to the holy land, the who he had appointed guz ardians of the re:

into animofities againft each other, and threw the king

@ This true crofs was loft in the battle of Tiberiade, to which it carried by the crufaders for their protection. Rigord, an at

s, that after this difmal event, all the children who were born t

endom, had only twenty or twenty-two teeth, inflead of

jetwo, which was their former complement. p. 14,



C HAP.dom into combuftion. Longchamp, prefumptuous in

ip »his nature, elated by

the favour which he enjoyed with 1 antine > commiffion,

his mafter, and arr ;

could not fubmit to an equ:


ham: He even went fo far as to ee his colleague, and to extort from him a refignation of the earldom of Northumberland, and of his other dignities, as the price informed of thefe diffentions,

rfeilles, that the bifhop ;; but Longchamp had ffill the boldnefs to refufe compliance, on Satire that he himfelf was better acqu

intentions*, He proce

of his liberty

ordered, by letters from

fhould be reinftated in his off

s fecret

i t fole authority ; to treat all the era

and to difplay his power and riches with an invidious

oftentation. He never travelled without a ftrone cuard o o

of fifteen hundred foreign foldiers, collected aes that licentious tribe, with which the age was generally in feft-

ed: Nobles and knights were proud of bei admitted

into his train: His retinue wore the afpect of royal mag-

nificence: And when, in his progrefs through the king- dom, he lodged in any monaftery, his attendants, it is

faid, were fufficient to devour, in one n the revenue

feveral years‘. The king, who was detained in

Europe longer than the haughty prelate expected, hearing

of this oftentation, which exceeded even what the habits of that age indulged to ecclefiaftics ; being alfo informed the infolent, tyrannical conduct of his minifter ; hought proper to reftrain his power: He fent new orders, appointing Walter archbifhop of Roiien, William Mare- fhal earl of Strigul, Geoffrey Fitz-Peter, William Brie-

were, and Hugh Bardolf, counfellors to Longchamp,

ro) =)

b Hoveden, p. 665. Kayghton, p. 2403 ¢ W. Heming,

p- 528. @ Hoveden, p, 680, Be aed Abb, p. 626, 700. Bromp- WON, P. 1193.


and commanding

without their concurrence ard approbation.

by his viol

ror had this man impre

Dr 1 ¢ general

duct, that even the archbifhop of Roiien and the

Strigul durft not serie this m2: and Longc

late of the k eh al ari uncontrouled autho-


hamp fill n he proceeded fo far as libifhop of York, who

] ti ~ ee clefia ical

rity over the nation.

to throw into prifon had oppofed his meafures privileges excited fuch an uni

John, difgufted with the fmall fhare he poffefled in the

government, and perfonally difobliged by Longchamp,

ventured to fummon at ding a general council of the

nobility and prelate

Longchamp thoug their Hands, and he fhut himfe

don ; but being foon obliged to furrender tl

fled beyond fea, concealed under a f deprived of his offices ae laft of which vy Roiien, a prelate of prudence and moderatior office of legate, however, which Longchamp by pope Celeftine, ftanding his abfence, great autl 1 enabled him to difturb the governm

erred on the

the views of Philip, who watc! ty of P BR ichiedeestomurions he Rate annoying Richard’s dominions. That firit attempted to carry open war into Normandy ; but as the French nobility refafed to follow him in an invafion of a

ftate which they had fworn to protect,.and as the pope,

who was the general cae of all pri

trigue. He

PERS prince at ANS his tenes promifed

him his fifter Alice in marriage; offered to give him Vou, I. Cc poflefiion

mig) "4 red -to his






} ]





he moit


cuftom of



-) za nit the 4iil List &

ig to offend and affront him. The it its of Tyre, who TAP. 10h] an. had ttod *y ) r . -: = ] he prince demanded { TIG2. er bevinnin 7 ;

atonement: Conrade tr

Fhe prince iffued the fatal

ives in ¢ Cc S guaras, openly, in the. itreet i idon, Vv ded him

blow came. Richar

Though that monarch


| \



ea ALE ai AA tce, Crate ayowed the action in a form

ferrat, whofe cley:

filled all Europe ‘with exe

Pp. 124


Diceto, p. 680



Xx. Tn aiend 1192.


ino the dominions of a prince, whom he himfelf had ed with fo much glory in a

deferted, and who was engas

nowledged to be the common caufe

war, univerfally ack of Chriftendom. Bur Richard’s heroic actions in Paleftine were the beft

apology for his condu &. The Chriftian adventurers under his command determined, on opening the cam- attempt the fiece of Afcalon, in order to pre-

paign, to pare the way for that of Jerufalem; and they marched

along the fea-coaft with that intention. -Saladin propofed lace; and he placed himfelf on the

to intercept their pailag

an army, amounting to 300,000 combatants. afion was fought one of the greateft battles of

road w

that age; and the moft celebrated, for the military ge- nius of the commanders, for the number and valour of the troops, and for the. great variety of events which attended it. Both thesright wing of the Chriftians, commanded by d’Avefnes, and the left, conducted by the duke of Bu ys were, in the beginning of the day, broken and defeated; when Richard, who led on the

main body, reftored the battle ; attacked the enemy with


intrepidity and prefence of mind; performed the part both

of a confummate gencral and gallant foldier ; and not only gave his two wings leifure to recover from their con- fufion, but obtained a complete victory over the Sara- cens, of whom forty thoufand are {aid to have perifhed in the field !,. Afcalon foon after fell into the hands of the Chriftians : Other fieges were carried on with equal fuccefs: Richard was even able to advance within fight of Jerufalem, the object of his enterprize; when he had the mortification to find, that he muft abandon all hopes of immediate fuccefs, and muft put a flop to his career of vidtory. The crufaders, animated with an en-

1 Hoveden, p, 698, Bened. Abb, p. 6773 Dicsto, p. 662 Brompton, pi E2%4s


oke at fi

srofecution of their

immediate afliftance of

purpofe ; and

heaven, fet nothing before their eyes but fame and victory iis world, and a crown of glory in the next. But

fence from home, fatigue, difeafe, want, and the

of incidents which naturally attend war, ‘bal ora- abated that fury, which nothing was able direCtly

to ena and every one, except the king of Eng- land, exprefled a defire of fpeedily returning into Eu- rope. [he Germans and the Italians declared their refolution of defifting from the enterprize: The French

were ftill more obftinate in this purpofe: The duke of

Burgundy, in order to pay court to Philip, took all op- portunities of mortifying and oppofing Richard ™: And there appeared an, abfolute neceffity of abandoning for the prefent all hopes of farther conque ft, and.of fecuring the acquifitions of the Chriftians by an sivorhiineta tian with Saladin. Richard, therefore, concluded a truce with that monarch; and ftipulated, that Acre, Joppa, and other feaport towns of Paleftine, fhould remain in the hands of the Chriftians, and that every one of that religion fhould have liberty to perform his pilgrimage to Jerufa- lem unmolefted. This truce was concluded for three years, three months, three weeks, three days, and three hours ; a magical number, which had probably been de- vifed by the Europeans, and which was fuggefted by a fuperftition well fuited to the object of the war.